Ուշադրություն. Գեներալ Մանվելը..

Ուշադրություն. Գեներալ Մանվելը՝ էլ չկա․․․ինչ եղավ րոպեներ առաջ

Ուշադրություն. Գեներալ Մանվելը՝ էլ չկա․․․ինչ եղավ րոպեներ առաջ

There are several rail lines. Antananarivo is connected to Toamasina, Ambatondrazaka and Antsirabe by rail, and another rail line connects Fianarantsoa to Manakara. The most important seaport in Madagascar is located on the east coast at Toamasina. Ports at Mahajanga and Antsiranana are significantly less used because of their remoteness.[21] The island’s newest port at Ehoala, constructed in 2008 and privately managed by Rio Tinto, will come under state control upon completion of the company’s mining project near Tôlanaro around 2038.[147] Air Madagascar services the island’s many small regional airports, which offer the only practical means of access to many of the more remote regions during rainy season road washouts.[21]

Running water and electricity are supplied at the national level by a government service provider, Jirama, which is unable to service the entire population. As of 2009, only 6.8 percent of Madagascar’s fokontany had access to water provided by Jirama, while 9.5 percent had access to its electricity services.[125] Fifty-six percent of Madagascar’s power is provided by hydroelectric power plants, with the remaining 44% provided by diesel engine generators.[151] Mobile telephone and internet access are widespread in urban areas but remain limited in rural parts of the island. Approximately 30% of the districts are able to access the nations’ several private telecommunications networks via mobile telephones or land lines.[125]

Radio broadcasts remain the principal means by which the Malagasy population access international, national, and local news. Only state radio broadcasts are transmitted across the entire island. Hundreds of public and private stations with local or regional range provide alternatives to state broadcasting.[111] In addition to the state television channel, a variety of privately owned television stations broadcast local and international programming throughout Madagascar. Several media outlets are owned by political partisans or politicians themselves, including the media groups MBS (owned by Ravalomanana) and Viva (owned by Rajoelina),[58] contributing to political polarization in reporting.

The media have historically come under varying degrees of pressure to censor their criticism of the government. Reporters are occasionally threatened or harassed, and media outlets are periodically forced to close.[111] Accusations of media censorship have increased since 2009 because of the alleged intensification of restrictions on political criticism.[118] Access to the internet has grown dramatically over the past decade, with an estimated 352,000 residents of Madagascar accessing the internet from home or in one of the nation’s many internet cafés in December 2011.[111]

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