Դուբայի Միլյարդատեր Լենայի համար փողը և հողը․․․Դուբայի Միլյարդատեր Լենայի համար փողը և հողը․․․Դուբայի Միլյարդատեր Լենայի համար փողը և հողը․․․Դուբայի Միլյարդատեր Լենայի համար փողը և հողը․․․Դուբայի Միլյարդատեր Լենայի համար փողը և հողը․․․Դուբայի Միլյարդատեր Լենայի համար փողը և հողը․․․Դուբայի Միլյարդատեր Լենայի համար փողը և հողը․․․
«I Have a Dream» came to be regarded as one of the finest speeches in the history of American oratory. The March, and especially King’s speech, helped put civil rights at the top of the agenda of reformers in the United States and facilitated passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
The original typewritten copy of the speech, including King’s handwritten notes on it, was discovered in 1984 to be in the hands of George Raveling, the first African-American basketball coach of the University of Iowa. In 1963, Raveling, then 26, was standing near the podium, and immediately after the oration, impulsively asked King if he could have his copy of the speech. He got it.
Selma voting rights movement and «Bloody Sunday», 1965
Main article: Selma to Montgomery marches
The civil rights march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, in 1965.
Acting on James Bevel’s call for a march from Selma to Montgomery, King, Bevel, and the SCLC, in partial collaboration with SNCC, attempted to organize the march to the state’s capital. The first attempt to march on March 7, 1965, was aborted because of mob and police violence against the demonstrators. This day has become known as Bloody Sunday and was a major turning point in the effort to gain public support for the civil rights movement. It was the clearest demonstration up to that time of the dramatic potential of King’s nonviolence strategy. King, however, was not present.
On March 5, King met with officials in the Johnson Administration in order to request an injunction against any prosecution of the demonstrators. He did not attend the march due to church duties, but he later wrote, «If I had any idea that the state troopers would use the kind of brutality they did, I would have felt compelled to give up my church duties altogether to lead the line.» Footage of police brutality against the protesters was broadcast extensively and aroused national public outrage.
King next attempted to organize a march for March 9. The SCLC petitioned for an injunction in federal court against the State of Alabama; this was denied and the judge issued an order blocking the march until after a hearing. Nonetheless, King led marchers on March 9 to the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, then held a short prayer session before turning the marchers around and asking them to disperse so as not to violate the court order. The unexpected ending of this second march aroused the surprise and anger of many within the local movement. The march finally went ahead fully on March 25, 1965. At the conclusion of the march on the steps of the state capitol, King delivered a speech that became known as «How Long, Not Long.» In it, King stated that equal rights for African Americans could not be far away, «because the arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends toward justice» and «you shall reap what you sow».[a]
Chicago open housing movement, 1966
Main article: Chicago Freedom Movement
King stands behind President Johnson as he signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
In 1966, after several successes in the south, King, Bevel, and others in the civil rights organizations took the movement to the North, with Chicago as their first destination. King and Ralph Abernathy, both from the middle class, moved into a building at 1550 S. Hamlin Avenue, in the slums of North Lawndale on Chicago’s West Side, as an educational experience and to demonstrate their support and empathy for the poor.